Arterial Thrombosis and its pathogenesis are dynamic and complex. Dissimilar to venous thrombi, the category of thrombosis usually form under high blood flow conditions, and are chiefly composed of aggregates of platelet, which give them the looks of white clots.
Huge evidence suggests the Arterial Thrombosis to be originated as a condition of an injured plaque of atherosclerosis. Their formation result in the release of platelet aggregation, prothrombotic material, and adhesion of platelets to the wall. The platelet plaque at the initial level is then calmed by fibrin production on the activation of the coagulation cascade.
The acquired conditions of predisposing and inherited gene polymorphisms can manipulate both the size and composition of an Arterial Thrombosis. Additional research is needed to clarify the functions of cellular elements and blood coagulation protein, which are serious to the Arterial pathogenesis.
Activation of the endothelial cells and exposure of subendothelial matrix is the 2 most crucial events following this injury. Two situations of endothelial start are the appearance of adhesion receptors, which also include intercellular molecule, platelet endothelial molecule, and vascular adhesion molecule on the cell membrane. This will result in the release of bodies of Weibel-Palade through exocytosis.
The plasma membrane alteration result in revelation of surface (endothelial) to the flow of blood, which is rich in phospholipids. These phospholipids are negatively charged and can bind hemostatic molecules and coagulation factors. This result in the promotion of prothrombots signals.
After the discharge of factors of tissue from the wounded endothelial cells, the dormant proteins of blood coagulation are successively changed into the active enzymes by a series of enzymatic reactions. The speedy formation of thrombin results in the formation of Arterial Thrombosis.
Remarkably, venous and Arterial Thrombosis vary in their work. This is basically composed of mainly aggregates of platelets, which gives them the looks of white clots. However, Venous Thrombosis mainly consists of RBCs and fibrin and thus looks like red clots. Though, the platelets act as the head of venous thrombi, their integration slowly and steady decreases. This makes the clots redder due to the predomination of erythrocytes and fibrin.
Pathological thrombosis takes place when the haemostatic path is sturdily activated. The pathway exceeds the usual regulatory counter balance through anticoagulant factors that are responsible to localize and limit the formation of thrombus in the area of injury. Such sturdy hemostatic path activation in arteries can be the result from the disruption of atherosclerotic plaque.
Arterial Thrombosis is leaded by a compound interaction between genetic and environmental factors. It is shocking to know that this disease represents the chief cause of death all over the world. The humans understanding of cellular and molecular basis of Arterial Thrombosis and its formation has greatly advanced. This is mainly due to the use of new mouse models of thrombi.
Although, we by now owns a good prime knowledge about the formation of arterial thrombosis, further research is needed to clarify the functions of a number of cellular elements and proteins, which have significant roles in this disease.